Challenging behaviour measures and scales/questionnaires

We have developed a number of measures/questionnaire scales for use in research and practice. Information about each one will be made available here so that people can view and download the information whenever they like.

Each measure is free to researchers and practitioners for non-commercial use. Please ensure that the appropriate reference sources for each measure are used in any publications. Thank you.



Challenging Behaviour Attributions scale (CHABA)



Reference: Hastings, R. P. (1997). Measuring staff perceptions of challenging behaviour: The Challenging Behaviour Attributions Scale (CHABA). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 41, 495-501.



This is a measure designed to assess a range of staff beliefs about the causes of challenging behaviours from operant learning processes to biological causes. Details on the sub-scales contained within the measure and the scoring procedure are given in the source reference. Phrases underlined in the instructions are designed to be amended as appropriate to focus on the population under study. For example, we have used the CHABA with staff working in schools for children with autism.



We have also used the CHABA in a short form containing the items related to behavioural causal models only. The approach to use of the scale in this form, and the associated scoring procedure, are described in the reference source below:



Hastings, R. P., & Brown, T. (2002). Behavioural knowledge, causal beliefs, and self-efficacy as predictors of special educators’ emotional reactions to challenging behaviours. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46, 144-150.



A further publication using this short form is:



Hastings, R. P., Tombs, A. K. H., Monzani, L. C., & Boulton, H. V. N. (2003). Determinants of caregivers’ negative emotional reactions and causal beliefs about self-injurious behaviour: An experimental study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 59-67.
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Emotional Reactions to Challenging Behaviours scales



Reference: Mitchell, G., & Hastings, R. P. (1998). Learning disability care staff emotional reactions to aggressive challenging behaviours: Development of a measurement tool. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 441-449.



Originally, we developed these scales to assess staff negative emotional responses to challenging behaviours. Two sub-scales were produced via factor analysis and the scores obtained appeared to be reliable. Scoring and development information is contained within the key reference. Again, phrases underlined in the instructions can be amended to refer to the population under study.

Later, we added positive emotions items to the measure. This is described in the following paper:

Jones, C., & Hastings, R. P. (2003). Staff reactions to self-injurious behaviour in learning disability services: Attributions, emotional responses, and helping. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 189-203.

We have used the scale in two ways. Shown in the download is the standard format designed to assess staff typical emotional reactions to challenging behaviours experienced as a part of their work. This use is described in several papers:

Hastings, R. P., & Brown, T. (2002). Behavioural knowledge, causal beliefs, and self-efficacy as predictors of special educators’ emotional reactions to challenging behaviours. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46, 144-150.

Mitchell, G., & Hastings, R. P. (2001). Coping, burnout, and emotion in staff working in community services for people with challenging behaviors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 106, 448-459.

In several experimental studies, we have also used identical items with an amended response scale to allow participants to report on their emotional reactions to discrete challenging behaviour stimuli (e.g., immediately after watching a video - see Jones & Hastings as an example). This use is also described in the following papers:

Hastings, R. P., Tombs, A. K. H., Monzani, L. C., & Boulton, H. V. N. (2003). Determinants of caregivers’ negative emotional reactions and causal beliefs about self-injurious behaviour: An experimental study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 59-67.
Mossman, D. A., Hastings, R. P., & Brown, T. (2002). Mediators’ emotional responses to self-injurious behavior: An experimental study. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 252-260. 
 

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Challenging Behaviour Self-Efficacy Scale




This measure was designed as a domain specific measure of self-efficacy relating to challenging behaviours. It is a simple scale, scored by summing the ratings on all five items. It is also very flexible. So far, we have published data on this scale or variants of it with staff (see JIDR paper), and parents (see AJMR paper). We have also adapted the scale to look at self-efficacy in another specific domain - parents’ beliefs about their efficacy as ABA therapy agents (see RIDD paper) - as have other researchers (e.g., Hills, 2008; Lee, 2001).


References:


Hastings, R. P., & Brown, T. (2002). Behavior problems of autistic children, parental self-efficacy and mental health. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 222-232.


Hastings, R. P., & Brown, T. (2002). Behavioural knowledge, causal beliefs, and self-efficacy as predictors of special educators’ emotional reactions to challenging behaviours. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 46, 144-150.


Hastings, R. P., & Symes, M. D. (2002). Early intensive behavioral intervention for children with autism: Parental therapeutic self-efficacy. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 332-341.


Hills, D. (2008). Relationships between aggression management training, perceived self-efficacy and rural general hospital nurses’ experiences of patient aggression. Contemporary Nurse, 30, 20-31.

Lee, F. (2001). Violence in A&E: The role of training and self-efficacy. Nursing Standard, 15(46), 33-38.

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